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Title:Over dieren
Format Type:Ebook
Author:
Publisher:Historische Uitgeverij
ISBN:9065540105
ISBN 13:
Number of Pages:223
Category:Manga

Over dieren by Aristotle, Rein Ferwerda, Aristoteles

PDF, EPUB, MOBI, TXT, DOC Over dieren Aristoteles is de grondlegger van de biologie Gedreven door een ongebreidelde belangstelling een scherp waarnemingsvermogen en een onverzadelijke drang tot ordenen en verklaren organiseerde hij een grootschalig onderzoeksproject dat tot doel had de dieren en plantenwereld in al haar verscheidenheid in kaart te brengen en begrijpelijk te maken De resultaten van dit project vonden hun neerslag in zijn geschriften Over dieren waarin de mens overigens een prominente plaats inneemt .

Het gaat Aristoteles om meer dan een louter empirisch observeren van de verschijnselen Hij is op zoek naar regelmaat en systematiek naar kenmerken die dieren en diersoorten gemeen hebben en op grond waarvan ze in groepen kunnen worden ingedeeld .

Bovenal is het hem erom te doen te begrijpen waarom dieren zijn zoals ze zijn waarom ze bepaalde kenmerken vertonen waarom ze zich zus en zo gedragen en waarom ze zich zo moeten gedragen Bij dit verklaren spelen de begrippen noodzaak en doel een centrale rol Aristoteles tracht consequent de verschijnselen die hij aantreft te verklaren vanuit hun materi le oorzaken en vanuit het doel of de functie die ze dienen voor de instandhouding en voortplanting van organismen .

In deze sterke drang tot ordenen en verklaren ligt ook het filosofische belang van Aristoteles biologische geschriften ze bieden een levendige en vaak amusante illustratie van de manier waarop hij zijn theoretische uitgangspunten in praktijk brengt en van de problemen die zich daarbij voordoen ofschoon niet vrij van systeemdwang houdt hij oog voor de rijkdom en variatie van de verschijnselen en erkent hij dat niet alles zich in de theorie laat inpassen .

De hierbij vertaalde werken De partibus animalium De incessu animalium De motu animalium bieden een uitstekende mogelijkheid tot kennismaking met Aristoteles als bioloog en filosoof Over de lichaamsdelen van dieren begint met een principi le inleiding tot de wetenschappelijke bestudering van de levende natuur Daarop volgt een uitgebreide vergelijkende beschrijving van de lichaamsdelen die dieren gemeen hebben en van de functies die ze dienen Over de beweging van dieren en De voortbeweging van dieren behandelen een van de meest fundamentele kenmerken waarin dieren van planten verschillen het vermogen om zich voort te bewegen Beweging gaat in op het inwendige psychofysische mechanisme waardoor beweging tot stand komt Voortbeweging op de uiterlijke verscheidenheid aan organen en vormen van beweging die het dierenrijk te zien geeft .

Over dieren is het tweede deel in de grote serie Aristoteles in Nederlandse vertaling .

Vertaald ingeleid en van aantekeningen en registers voorzien door Rein Ferwerda

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i The soul is so to speak the first principle of living things We seek to contemplate and know its nature and substance i br br For the Pre Socratic philosophers the soul was the source of movement and sensation while for Plato it was the seat of being metaphysically distinct from the body that it was forced temporarily to inhabit Plato s student Aristotle was determined to test the truth of both these beliefs against the emerging sciences of logic and biology His examination of the huge variety of living organisms the enormous range of their behaviour their powers and their perceptual sophistication convinced him of the inadequacy both of a materialist reduction and of a Platonic sublimation of the soul In De Anima he sought to set out his theory of the soul as the ultimate reality of embodied form and produced both a masterpiece of philosophical insight and a psychology of perennially fascinating subtlety br br Hugh Lawson Tancred s masterly translation makes i De Anima i fully accessible to modern readers In his introduction he places Aristotle s theories at the heart of contemporary debates on the philosophy of life and being, For many centuries Aristotle s Physics was the essential starting point for anyone who wished to study the natural sciences Now in the first translation into English since Aristotle s thought is presented accurately with a lucid introduction and extensive notes to explain the general structure of each section of the book and shed light on particular problems It simplifies and expands the style of the original making for easier reading and better comprehension, Few if any writers in history have made major contributions to as many fields of knowledge as Aristotle br p If there are two definitive features of ancient Greek civilization writes Hugh Lawson Tancred in his wide ranging Introduction they are articulacy and competition In the city states oratorical competence was an essential asset for politicians in the Assemblies and Councils and even for ordinary citizens in the courts of law In response the technique of rhetoric rapidly developed bringing virtuoso performances and a host of practical manuals for the layman Yet if many of these were little more than collections of debaters tricks the hugely influential i Art of Rhetoric i has a far deeper purpose It is here that Aristotle B C establishes the methods of informal reasoning provides the first aesthetic evaluation of prose style and offers detailed observations on character and the emotions Persuasiveness suggests Lawson Tancred becomes for the first time a systematic and even scientific exercise it can indeed be taught but only by a deep grasp of some of the most central features of human nature His fine translation makes freshly available an epoch making work of literary criticism p, i The plot is the source and the soul of tragedy i br br In his near contemporary account of Greek tragedy Aristotle examines the dramatic elements of plot character language and spectacle that combine to produce pity and fear in the audience and asks why we derive pleasure from this apparently painful process Taking examples from the plays of Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides The Poetics introduces into literary criticism such central concepts as i mimesis i imitation i hamartia i error and i katharsis i purification Aristotle explains how the most effective tragedies rely on complication and resolution recognition and reversals centring on characters of heroic stature idealized yet true to life One of the most powerful perceptive and influential works of criticism in Western literary history the i Poetics i has informed serious thinking about drama ever since br br Malcolm Heath s lucid English translation makes the i Poetics i fully accessible to the modern reader It is accompanied by an extended introduction which discusses the key concepts in detail and includes suggestions for further reading